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Language and Gender

Name: Fatimah
NIM: 2201410061

Language and Gender Definitions

 

  • Language is an inherently social phenomenon and can provide insight into how men and women approach their social worlds. Men use language more for the instrumental purpose of conveying information; women are more likely to use verbal interaction for social purposes with verbal communication serving as an end in itself. (Newman, et al; 2008; 212)

(Newman, Matthew L. Carla J. Groom. Lori D. Handelman, el al. 2008. Gender Differences in Language Use: An Analysis of 14,000 Text Samples. Arizona: Routledge)

 

  • Language and gender is a particularly vibrant area of research and theory development within the larger study of language and society, and the contributions in this volume focus especially on more recent trends and developments.(Holmes and Meyerhoff, 2003, 1)

(Holmes,Janet and Miriam Meyerhoff. 2003. The Handbook of Language and Gender.Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd )

 

  • Gender is a complex set of identity resources that people can foreground, background, or negotiate across contexts, the boundary between the local and the global is shifting and contestable, and an attention to language can provide fascinating resources for the negotiation of this boundary.(Besneir, 2007, 72)

(Besneir, Niko. 2007. Language and Gender Research at the Intersection of the Global and the Local. Sheffield: Equinox Publishing)

 
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GENDER

Name: Fatimah
NIM: 2201410061
Lesson: Topics in Applied Linguistics

Gender
(Baxter, Judith. 2011. The Routledge Handbook of Applied Linguistics. New York: Routledge)
Language and Gender (also known as ‘Gender and Language’ or ‘Feminist Linguistics’) is a relatively new field within sociolinguistics. Ethnographically, linguists keen to gather authentic data to explore and explain folk-linguistic beliefs that males and females speak and act differently. Ideologically, language and gender scholars aimed to show that language – both in use and as a form of representation – was a primary means of constructing gender differences, and at times hierarchies and inequalities between men and women.
The term ‘gender’ refers to distinguish people in terms of their socio-cultural behavior, and to signify masculine and feminine behaviors as scales or continua rather than as a dichotomy, while ‘sex’ refers to categories distinguished by biological characteristics (i.e. ‘male’ and ‘female’).

– History of the area

Variationist studies

Most language and gender research on use assumes a ‘sex-preferential’ perspective – a male/ female preference for using different forms of the same language. Classic variationist studies looked for evidence of sex-preferential speech in large-scale English-speaking populations such as New York, Detroit, Norwich, the Wirral, Belfast and Sydney. Traditional variationist studies conceptualize ‘sex’ as a fixed and universal variable determining people’s use of language alongside other equally key categories such as class, age and ethnicity.

Interactional studies

The field of language and gender is most strongly associated today with a range of ‘interactional’ studies, which focus on the distinctively gendered ways in which people interact in various social and professional contexts. Three early but still highly influential theories (deficit, dominance, difference) all emphasized the notion of a gender dichotomy.

Deficit theory

Lakoff’s (1975) ‘deficit’ theory posited that from an early age, girls are taught how to use a separate ‘woman’s language’: they are socialized to use language in a ‘ladylike’ way.

Dominance theory

Lakoff’s (1975) thesis that women constructed their own subordination through their language use was a forerunner of ‘dominance’ theory. This had two distinct, parallel branches: language as social interaction, which considered how gender inequalities were constructed through routine interactions between men and women, and language as a system focusing on ‘sexism’ within the language.

Cultural difference theory

The contrasting conversational goals corresponded to differently gendered speech ‘styles’, whereby ‘women speak and hear a language of connection and intimacy, while men speak and hear a language of status and independence’ (Tannen 1990: 42). So, Coates (1988) argued that women’s talk should be ‘re-valued’ in much more positive ways by feminist linguists as different but equal, as complementary to men’s, not deficient.

– Main current issues

Social constructionism and the ‘post-modern turn’

According to the social constructionist theory, individuals don’t have gender, they do gender through repeated behavioral and linguistic interactions. This post-modern perspective argues that males and females do not have an individual essence, character or ‘core’. Any apparent characteristics are the effects we produce by way of particular things we do. Language is not just a medium to convey social life and interactions, but an essential, constitutive factor. So particular uses of language become culturally associated with masculinity and femininity; they become symbolically gendered or ‘index’ a gendered identity, rather than being the property or attributes of males and females.
According to the social constructionist perspective, gender can therefore be seen as relational, a process, something that is done, and an important resource for constructing gender roles and identities. If gender (and indeed sex) are cultural constructs only, they can be challenged and resisted.

Gender and sexuality

Sexuality is perceived as fluid, multi-faceted and a form of desire/identity that is constructed and performed through speech and behavior, and not simply determined by the sex of people’s bodies at birth or by early socialization.
A social constructionist perspective allows theorists to contest the culturally dominant association of (for example) same-sex preference with gender deviance because it transgresses the traditional gender dichotomy, and to reframe this as an investigation of alternative, hybrid, and exploratory identities and practices.

The salience of gender

A social constructionist approach does not lead logically to the demise of the field if it is extended to consider the construction and representation of gender and sexuality in text and discourse. Here, the notion of relevance, the idea that gender becomes relevant in some contexts but less so in others, is an important theme across both local and global perspectives.

– Future trajectory and new debates

The new debates are emerging within language and gender literature which are mentioned here are: the rise of biological essentialism, an extended role for communities of practice, and exploiting the plurality of research methodologies.
The first is the possible challenge posed by a resurgence of biological explanations of gender, spearheaded by the Darwinist science of evolutionary psychology. One of the discourses of biological essentialism is that women are ‘hard-wired’ to have more advanced verbal and linguistic abilities whereas men have more sophisticated spatial and mathematical skills.
A second new direction in the field is a proposal to extend the well-established concept of ‘communities of practice’ (within language and gender research in order to enable an ‘articulation between the local, the extra-local and the global’). According to the CofP concept, social practice emphasizing the social significance of what people do, goes well beyond simple individual acts or conversations (as studied by conversation analysis) to socially regulated, repeated and interpreted collaborative doings. On the other hand, Eckert and McConnell-Ginet (2007: 35) argue that it is unreasonable to expect single researchers always to link their study of specific communities of practice to global or ideological patterns, they propose that a unified interdisciplinary research community ‘can keep its collective eye on those connections’.
This interdisciplinary note, as a third new direction for language and gender, concerns the wide range of research methodologies through which the discipline is currently investigated. Here, research methodologies are not simply instrumental, but are conceptually driven with specific theoretical and epistemological imperatives.

Genre

Name: Fatimah

NIM: 2201410061

Lesson: Topics in Applied Linguistics

 

Gender

 (Baxter, Judith. 2011. The Routledge Handbook of Applied Linguistics. New York: Routledge)

Language and Gender (also known as ‘Gender and Language’ or ‘Feminist Linguistics’) is a relatively new field within sociolinguistics.  Ethnographically, linguists keen to gather authentic data to explore and explain folk-linguistic beliefs that males and females speak and act differently. Ideologically, language and gender scholars aimed to show that language – both in use and as a form of representation – was a primary means of constructing gender differences, and at times hierarchies and inequalities between men and women.

The term ‘gender’ refers to distinguish people in terms of their socio-cultural behavior, and to signify masculine and feminine behaviors as scales or continua rather than as a dichotomy, while ‘sex’ refers to categories distinguished by biological characteristics (i.e. ‘male’ and ‘female’).

 

–          History of the area

 

Variationist studies

 

Most language and gender research on use assumes a ‘sex-preferential’ perspective – a male/ female preference for using different forms of the same language. Classic variationist studies looked for evidence of sex-preferential speech in large-scale English-speaking populations such as New York, Detroit, Norwich, the Wirral, Belfast and Sydney. Traditional variationist studies conceptualize ‘sex’ as a fixed and universal variable determining people’s use of language alongside other equally key categories such as class, age and ethnicity.

 

Interactional studies

 

The field of language and gender is most strongly associated today with a range of ‘interactional’ studies, which focus on the distinctively gendered ways in which people interact in various social and professional contexts. Three early but still highly influential theories (deficit, dominance, difference) all emphasized the notion of a gender dichotomy.

 

 

Deficit theory

 

Lakoff’s (1975) ‘deficit’ theory posited that from an early age, girls are taught how to use a separate ‘woman’s language’: they are socialized to use language in a ‘ladylike’ way.

 

Dominance theory

 

Lakoff’s (1975) thesis that women constructed their own subordination through their language use was a forerunner of ‘dominance’ theory. This had two distinct, parallel branches: language as social interaction, which considered how gender inequalities were constructed through routine interactions between men and women, and language as a system focusing on ‘sexism’ within the language.

 

Cultural difference theory

 

The contrasting conversational goals corresponded to differently gendered speech ‘styles’, whereby ‘women speak and hear a language of connection and intimacy, while men speak and hear a language of status and independence’ (Tannen 1990: 42). So, Coates (1988) argued that women’s talk should be ‘re-valued’ in much more positive ways by feminist linguists as different but equal, as complementary to men’s, not deficient.

 

–          Main current issues

 

Social constructionism and the ‘post-modern turn’

           

            According to the social constructionist theory, individuals don’t have gender, they do gender through repeated behavioral and linguistic interactions. This post-modern perspective argues that males and females do not have an individual essence, character or ‘core’. Any apparent characteristics are the effects we produce by way of particular things we do. Language is not just a medium to convey social life and interactions, but an essential, constitutive factor. So particular uses of language become culturally associated with masculinity and femininity; they become symbolically gendered or ‘index’ a gendered identity, rather than being the property or attributes of males and females.

            According to the social constructionist perspective, gender can therefore be seen as relational, a process, something that is done, and an important resource for constructing gender roles and identities. If gender (and indeed sex) are cultural constructs only, they can be challenged and resisted.

 

 

 

Gender and sexuality

 

Sexuality is perceived as fluid, multi-faceted and a form of desire/identity that is constructed and performed through speech and behavior, and not simply determined by the sex of people’s bodies at birth or by early socialization.

A social constructionist perspective allows theorists to contest the culturally dominant association of (for example) same-sex preference with gender deviance because it transgresses the traditional gender dichotomy, and to reframe this as an investigation of alternative, hybrid, and exploratory identities and practices.

 

The salience of gender

           

A social constructionist approach does not lead logically to the demise of the field if it is extended to consider the construction and representation of gender and sexuality in text and discourse. Here, the notion of relevance, the idea that gender becomes relevant in some contexts but less so in others, is an important theme across both local and global perspectives.

 

–          Future trajectory and new debates

 

The new debates are emerging within language and gender literature which are mentioned here are: the rise of biological essentialism, an extended role for communities of practice, and exploiting the plurality of research methodologies.

The first is the possible challenge posed by a resurgence of biological explanations of gender, spearheaded by the Darwinist science of evolutionary psychology. One of the discourses of biological essentialism is that women are ‘hard-wired’ to have more advanced verbal and linguistic abilities whereas men have more sophisticated spatial and mathematical skills.

            A second new direction in the field is a proposal to extend the well-established concept of ‘communities of practice’ (within language and gender research in order to enable an ‘articulation between the local, the extra-local and the global’). According to the CofP concept, social practice emphasizing the social significance of what people do, goes well beyond simple individual acts or conversations (as studied by conversation analysis) to socially regulated, repeated and interpreted collaborative doings. On the other hand, Eckert and McConnell-Ginet (2007: 35) argue that it is unreasonable to expect single researchers always to link their study of specific communities of practice to global or ideological patterns, they propose that a unified interdisciplinary research community ‘can keep its collective eye on those connections’.

            This interdisciplinary note, as a third new direction for language and gender, concerns the wide range of research methodologies through which the discipline is currently investigated. Here, research methodologies are not simply instrumental, but are conceptually driven with specific theoretical and epistemological imperatives.

applied linguistics (assignment 1 revision)

Name: Fatimah
NIM: 2201410061
Lesson: Topic in Applied Linguistics

Definition and the scope of applied linguistics
A. DEFINITION

1. “Applied linguistics is the academic field which connects knowledge about language to decision-making in the real world.” (Simpson, 2011, 1)

(Simpson, James. 2011. The Routledge Handbook of Applied Linguistics. New York: Routledge)

2. It is belief that linguistics can offer insights and ways forward in the resolution of problems related to language in a wide variety of contexts that underlies the very existence of the discipline usually called applied linguistics. (McCarty, 2001, 1)

(McCarthy, Michael. 2001. Issues in Applied Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

3. “Applications of linguistics range from research application of a theoretical nature to quite practical tasks where problems have to be solved,” and he enumerates understanding the nature and functions of language, the commonalities and differences between languages, how languages evolve through time, how child language develops, how language has developed in humans, the quality of texts, variation in language, literary and poetic texts and verbal art, the relation between language and culture, language and situation, the role of language in the community and in the individual, including bilingualism, the relation between language and the brain, the languages of the Deaf, help in learning foreign languages, training translators and interpreters, diagnosing speech pathology, legal adjudication (forensic linguistics), computer software to produce and understand texts and to translate systems of speech production and reception.( Halliday; 1985, xxix-xxx in Gramley, 2008)
(Halliday, M.A.K. 1985. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold in Gramley, Stephen and Vivian Gramley. 2008. Bielefeld Introduction to Applied Linguistics. Magdeburg: Aisthesis Verlag )

4. Applied linguistics is generally understood as dealing with real world problems in which language and communication are an issue. (Knapp, 2013, 1)

(Knapp, Karlfried. 2013. European Journal of Applied Linguistics. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton)

5. “because language is everywhere, applied linguistics is the science of everything,” (Davies, 2007, 2)
(Davies, Alan. 2007. An Introduction of Applied Linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press)

6. Applied linguistics is The branch of linguistics that concerned with practical applications of language studies, with particular emphasis on the communicative function of language, and including such professional practices as:
a. lexicography,
b. terminology,
c. general or technical translation,
d. language teaching (general or specialized language, mother tongue or second language),
e. writing,
f. interpretation,
g. and computer processing of language.

Taken from: http://www.translationbureau.gc.ca/index.php?cont=700&lang=english

7. …. Applied linguistics is not simply a matter of matching up findings about language with pre-existing problems but of using findings to explore how the perception of problems might be changed. It may be that when problems are reformulated from a different point of view they become more amenable to solution. This changed perception may then, in turn, have implications for linguistics. (Cook, 2003, 10 in Chapelle)

(Cook, G. 2003. Applied Linguistics. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press in Chapelle, Carol. A. Introduction to The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics)

8. “Applied Linguistics is the study of language in order to address real-world concerns. Another is that it is the study of language, and language-related topics, in specified situations. The real-world concerns include language learning and teaching but also other issues such as professional communication, literacy, translation practices, language and legal or health issues, and many more. Applied linguistics is practically-oriented, but it is also theory driven and interdisciplinary. Models of how languages are learned and stored, for example, are ‘applied linguistics’, as are descriptions of individual language varieties that prioritize actual and contextualized language use.” (Hunston;2009)
– Taken from: Susan Hunston.2009.What is Applied Linguistics? Retrieved on 10 March 2013 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/16212220/What-is-Applied-Linguistics

9. “Applied linguistics is a discipline which explores the relations between theory and practice in language with particular reference to issues of language use. It embraces contexts in which people use and learn languages and is a platform for systematically addressing problems involving the use of language and communication in real-world situations. Applied linguistics draws on a range of disciplines, including linguistics. In consequence, applied linguistics has applications in several areas of language study, including language learning and teaching, the psychology of language processing, discourse analysis, stylistics, corpus analysis, literacy studies and language planning and policies.” (Knight;2009)
– Taken from: Dawn Knight.2009.What is Applied Linguistic. Retrieved on 10 March 2013 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/16212220/What-is-Applied-Linguistics

10. “Applied Linguistics (AL) provides the theoretical and descriptive foundations for the investigation and solution of language-related problems, especially those of language education (first-language, second-language and foreign-language teaching and learning), but also problems of translation and interpretation, lexicography, forensic linguistics and (perhaps) clinical linguistics.’’ (Hudson;1999)
Taken from: Dick Hudson.1999. Applied Linguistics. Retrieved on 10 March 2013 from http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/dick/AL.html

– So, in my own word, I can conclude that applied linguistics is the study of language that is used to solve many problems related to language in many cases.

B. The Scope of Applied Linguistics

Applied linguistics is the use of language-related research in a wide scope, including:
• language acquisition
• language teaching
• literacy
• literary studies
• gender studies
• speech therapy
• discourse analysis
• censorship
• workplace communication
• media studies
• translation studies
• lexicography
• forensic linguistics.
(Nordquist; 2007)
– Taken from: (Nordquist, Richard. 2007. Applied linguistics. Retrieved on 10 March 2013 from http://grammar.about.com/od/ab/g/appliedlinguisticsterm.htm)

Topics in Applied Linguistics (Assignment 1)

Definition and the scope of applied linguistics
A. DEFINITION
1. “Applied Linguistics is the study of language in order to address real-world concerns. Another is that it is the study of language, and language-related topics, in specified situations. The real-world concerns include language learning and teaching but also other issues such as professional communication, literacy, translation practices, language and legal or health issues, and many more. Applied linguistics is practically-oriented, but it is also theory driven and interdisciplinary. Models of how languages are learned and stored, for example, are ‘applied linguistics’, as are descriptions of individual language varieties that prioritize actual and contextualized language use.” (Hunston;2009)
– Taken from: Susan Hunston.2009.What is Applied Linguistics? Retrieved on 10 March 2013 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/16212220/What-is-Applied-Linguistics

2. “Applied linguistics is a discipline which explores the relations between theory and practice in language with particular reference to issues of language use. It embraces contexts in which people use and learn languages and is a platform for systematically addressing problems involving the use of language and communication in real-world situations. Applied linguistics draws on a range of disciplines, including linguistics. In consequence, applied linguistics has applications in several areas of language study, including language learning and teaching, the psychology of language processing, discourse analysis, stylistics, corpus analysis, literacy studies and language planning and policies.” (Knight;2009)
– Taken from: Dawn Knight.2009.What is Applied Linguistic. Retrieved on 10 March 2013 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/16212220/What-is-Applied-Linguistics

3. “Applied Linguistics (AL) provides the theoretical and descriptive foundations for the investigation and solution of language-related problems, especially those of language education (first-language, second-language and foreign-language teaching and learning), but also problems of translation and interpretation, lexicography, forensic linguistics and (perhaps) clinical linguistics.’’ (Hudson;1999)
– Taken from: Dick Hudson.1999. Applied Linguistics. Retrieved on 10 March 2013 from http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/dick/AL.html

B. The Scope of Applied Linguistics

Applied linguistics is the use of language-related research in a wide scope, including:
• language acquisition
• language teaching
• literacy
• literary studies
• gender studies
• speech therapy
• discourse analysis
• censorship
• workplace communication
• media studies
• translation studies
• lexicography
• forensic linguistics.
(Nordquist; 2007)
– Taken from: (Nordquist, Richard. 2007. Applied linguistics. Retrieved on 10 March 2013 from http://grammar.about.com/od/ab/g/appliedlinguisticsterm.htm)

chapter 9

Questions and Answer Introduction to Second Language Acquisition
Chapter 9

1. Q: What is the implication of language pedagogy?
A: The implication is that positive input in the form of input flooding may help learners to start using some difficult forms but may not be sufficient to destabilize interlanguage and prevent fossilization.

2. Q: What kind of form-focused instructions are they that can work best in learning L2 language?
A: They are input-based and production-based practices

3. Q: What is the meaning of instruction in form-focused instruction
A: It means that instruction have an effect on learners’ ability to manipulate structures consciously and quite another for it to effect their ability to use structures with ease and accuracy in fluent communication.
4. Q: What is the strength and weakness of input-flooding?
A: Input-flooding may help students learn features in the input, but does not destabilize interlanguage grammars.

5. Q: What is the idea of ideology training?
A: The idea of strategy training is attractive because it provides a way of helping learners to become autonomous (i.e. of enabling them to take responsibility for their own learning).

mid test SLA

Name: Fatimah
NIM: 2201410061
Lesson: Introduction to Second Language Acquisition

Mid-term Test

1. What is second language acquisition?

– Second language acquisition is a process of learning other languages in addition to the native language and it concern with the language system and learning process.

2. What is the difference between ‘second’ and ‘foreign’ language?

– Second language is a language that is learnt by people after they get their first language and they use it in the daily activity.
– Foreign language is a new language that is learnt by people. However, the new language is learnt only in formal education, but it’s not used in the daily life. Foreign language learners are usually learned for the sake of learning about the culture and people who speak it.

3. What are the goals of SLA?

1) Fostering an understanding of the principles and processes that govern second language learning and use.

2) Developing the ability to think critically about research findings in the field.

3) Understanding the relationship between second language acquisition’s research and second language instruction. An understanding of the basic processes involved in second language acquisition should serve as the backdrop for reflective teaching practice.

4. Give an example of a ‘naturalistic’ learner. Why?

A naturalistic learner love to be able to touch, feel, hold, and do. Digging in the dirt, climbing trees, collecting samples, gathering more items for their collections help these types of learners experience and observe their natural surroundings. They are very in tune with the environment.

5. What is the difference between ‘mistakes’ and ‘errors’?

– Mistake is a condition when learners have known the correct system, but sometimes they fail to use the correct one, it can be caused of a random guess or a slip of the tongue.
– Error: a condition in which learners do not know the correct points, so they keep producing the incorrect ones.
– So, the main differences are “Error” is used for wrongs that cannot be easily corrected. A “mistake” however, can be relatively easy to set straight.

6. Explain and give one example of ‘overgeneralization’.

– Overgeneralizations are cases in which a child gives a word a broad range of meaning that it has in the adult grammar. Many young children make this overgeneralization when learning how to categorize the details of their world. They have learned a general concept, but do not yet understand its exceptions. For example, the child incorrectly generalized the word “doggie” to include squirrels and perhaps other furry animals that make up part of his or her world.
7. Explain two learning theories: Behaviorist and Mentalist. What are the implications of these learning theories for language teachers?

– Behaviorist theories are based exclusively on observable behavior in the description and explanation of learning behavior, while mentalist theories on the structure and mechanisms of the mind for such descriptions and explanations.

– Behaviorist theory is the analyses of human behavior in observable stimulus-response interaction and the association between them.
So we can say that language learning involves habit formation.
à habit = stimulus-response connection
This theory emphasize on what can be directly observed and ignorance of what goes on in the `black box´ of the learner`s mind

 This learing theory cannot adequately account for language teachers to teach to L2 learners, because learning is not just a response to an external stimuli.

– Mentalist theory is the human ability to have an innate predisposition toward language acquisition, being in a sense “programmed” for language.

The majority of this theory is to shift in thinking in psychology and linguistics.

 Teachers can use this theory for making their students acquire the second language by maximally using the human’s abillity in predisposotion.

8. What is ‘interlanguage’?

– Interlanguage is the type of language used by second language learners who are in the process of learning a target language.

9. Consider the following data:
A: I like your shoes (expressing compliments)
B: Thank you
How can you explain the B’s response in terms of the acquisition of discourse rules?
– Social factors effect second language acquisition but not directly. When we learn a language we don’t only learn it also we learn its culture, social life, history. However there are social rules which native speakers obey when they communicate but L2 learner sometimes speak by taking into consideration the rules of his native language and he or she can change grammar rules, he or she can understand his speech because of meaning is convenient, but he or she can see that he makes an error because his speech doesn’t obey the grammar rules. These discourse rules can be transferred from L1 to L2 by communication.

10. Describe ‘the critical period hypotheses’. What are the implications of this hypothesis for language teachers?

– The critical period hypotheses are a period of growth in which full native competence is possible when acquiring a language. Acquisition theories say that adults do not acquire languages as well as children because of external and internal factors, not because of a lack of ability.
– Implication: adults think that they will lose for acquiring second language compare with children. Teachers can help them who believe this by talking about the learning process and learning styles, helping set realistic goals, choosing suitable methodologies, and addressing the emotional needs of the adult learner.