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Presentation Applied Linguistics



presentation about Language and Politics

Language and Politics


14.1 Beginnings: The Politics of Linguistic Correctness and Persuasion

The study of language and politics is aimed at understanding the role oflinguistic communication in the functioning of social units, and how this role shapes language itself. From early in the history of western thought, language and politics have defined what it is to be human. Aristotle’s Politics famously describes man as by nature a political animal, and his On Interpretation, read in the context of his History of Animals, shows that what essentially separates man from beast is articulate language signifying by convention. The fact that the word “politics” derives from Greek polis ‘city’ is significant. The city as an organized social unit depends on linguistic communication for its functioning, and urban life places functional demands on language that are substantially different from those in a sparsely populated rural setting. Country folk depend on the land for their living, city folk on one another. Politics is the art, and language the medium, whereby they position themselves to get what they need, and beyond that, what they want.

14.2 The Structuralist vs. Marxist Divide

Posthumously assembled and published in 1916, the Course in General Linguisticsby Ferdinand de Saussure (1857–1913) would within a decade and a half assume the status of foundational text for structuralist linguistics. Saussure declared that langue, a language, is a social fact, and that social force holds thesystem together so powerfully that no individual can change the language.Changes occur in parole ‘speech,’ and if eventually the social communityaccepts the change, the system moves to a new state, a new langue. But the social space which language occupies for Saussure is not political: every member of the speech community possesses the language, he says, in identical form. There is no scope for one speaker to manifest power over another, for langue has no individual dimension – that belongs entirely to parole. Despite the apolitical nature of his analysis, the shadow of Saussure would loom large in subsequent attempts at a political account of language. If not reacting against Saussure’s idealization of a homogeneous speech community, such attempts are likely to be based on a methodology deriving from the structuralism Saussure is credited with founding, or perhaps reacting against that very structuralism.

14.3 Politics in Discourse: Approaches in the Marxist Line

In the English-speaking world, the connection between language and politicswas first brought to general attention in a 1946 article by George Orwell (the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair, 1903–50), that anticipates the core problem of language he would address so memorably three years later in his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four.

Modern English, especially written English, is full of bad habits which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. If one gets rid of these habits one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is a necessary first step towards political regeneration . . . This invasion of one’s mind by ready-made phrases . . . can only be prevented if one is constantly on guard against them, and every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of one’s brain. (Orwell, 1946, pp. 252–3, 263)

The linguistic “bad habits” consist of strings of words that form well-worn patterns, coercing their users to think in certain ways. “Clear thinking” demands that one start from mental images, visualizing things then finding words to describe them. Starting with words is likelier to produce purely abstract thinking.

In Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), Newspeak is English re-engineered through massive vocabulary reduction and shifts of meaning. It is controlled by the Party, whose head, Big Brother, is a symbol rather than an actualperson. A small Inner Party use Newspeak to control the minds of the largerOuter Party. The aim of Newspeak is “to make all other modes of thought impossible.” For instance, according to the Party, 2 + 2 = 5. The hero of the novel, Winston Smith, realizes from the evidence of his own eyes that this is wrong, but the Party already has enough control over his thought and language that he cannot put together the argument he intuitively knows would prove its falsity. The same is true with the Party’s operation for rewriting history, in which Winston himself is engaged, and indeed with its three slogans, “WAR IS PEACE / FREEDOM IS SLAVERY / IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH.”

Propaganda can only be combated by rational analysis and argument. This entails rephrasing propagandistic statements in a different form. If such rephrasing were made impossible through the loss of alternative words inwhich the same idea might be given a different linguistic shape, then it might no longer be possible to question the truth of any statement. As the ultimate language for the suppression of thought, Newspeak represents the horrific end of the road that Orwell (1946) describes English as traveling, where standardization of language goes hand in hand with standardization of thought.

In the nineteenth century, the ideology of Standard English was part of a wider ruling-class project to extend its hegemony over a growing working class and to meet the demands of mass education on its own terms. However, this ruling class ideology ran up against the narrowness of its social base, which, in the case of language, could be seen in the reality of the continued existence of nonstandard forms used by the vast majority of society. (Holborow, 1999, p. 185)

In continental Europe, significant contributions to a Marxist account of language would be made by Ferrucio Rossi-Landi (1921–85) and Michel Pêcheux(b. 1938) (Rossi-Landi, 1975, 1983; Pêcheux, 1982). However, the most important turn in the Marxist line has been that of someone who is clearly post-Marxist, Jürgen Habermas (b. 1929) (see Habermas, 1998). He was trained in the Frankfurt School, which took as one of its intellectual starting points the reformulation of Marxist theory by Georg Lukács (1885–1971). By rethinking the relationship of theory to practice, Lukács led the way to a less deterministic and mechanistic form of Marxism than Marx himself had instituted. Linking theory to practice has been at the center of Habermas’ thinking, not least in what has been described as his “leading idea,” namely “that human language and human communication in general already contain implicit intersubjectivenorms” ( Jarvis, 1999, p. 435). In these norms of everyday language use, Habermas argues, lie the grounds for universal values and principles – in short, for truth. Habermas’ contribution has been less in analyzing the political content of language use than in establishing why it should be the central topic of philosophical concern. Since the Middle Ages philosophers have sought universal truth in logic-based theories of propositions and grammatical structures, while dismissing what people do with language as trivial. In arguing for the primacy of practice, Habermas has remained in the Marxist line, where the politics of language use is real, and its analysis trivial insofar as it is abstracted away from this reality.

14.4 Politics in Grammar and Discourse: Approaches in the Structuralist Line

In the 1920s the mainstream of linguistics shifted from the historical enquiry ofthe nineteenth century to the “structuralist” analysis of language systems at a given point in time, following the inspiration of Saussure. It was not therefore congenial to a political understanding of language, and the linguists who occasionally touched upon the subject, such as Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897– 1941) and Alan S. C. Ross (1907–80), did so in popular writings rather than in articles for linguistics journals. Not until the 1950s did structuralist enquiry start to find a place for the political content of language.

In France, this was the period in which structuralism ascended from alinguistic method to a general intellectual paradigm, propelled by the great success of Lévi-Strauss (1955) (see Joseph, 2001). The two French structuralistswho would have the most profound and lasting impact on language and politics, Michel Foucault (1926–84) and Pierre Bourdieu (1930–2002), would seem on the surface to have as much in common with the post-Marxist line represented by Habermas as with linguistic structuralism. There are indeed important points in common with Habermas, especially in Bourdieu’s case. But what essentially distinguishes Foucault from his Marxist counterparts is his belief that the objects of knowledge, including language as well as the concepts that constitute its signified, are not produced by subjects thinking, speaking, and acting intersubjectively. Rather, they are produced by “power”itself, with which they have a mutually constitutive relationship.

14.5 The Politics of Language Choice

Within the structuralist linguistic tradition, the cultural politics of languagewas introduced by Charles Ferguson (1921–98) in a 1959 article entitled “Diglossia.” Ferguson originally proposed a “narrow” definition of diglossia.

The core examples Ferguson examines are Arabic, Modern Greek, Swiss German, and Haitian Creole. Other examples which he cites are Tamil, Chinese, and Latin in relation to the emerging Romance languages in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. He specifically excludes the standard-language-plus-dialects configuration familiar from western European languages as not encompassing the same level of “divergence” either structurally or functionally. Standard French is used for “ordinary conversation” in France, where it is not therefore in a diglossic relation with non-standard French dialects. Whereas, in Haiti only Haitian Creole is used in ordinary conversation, and therefore it is in a diglossic relation with Standard French. In such a case he calls Haitian Creole the L (“low”) and Standard French the H (“high”) language.

corpus linguistics

Name: Fatimah

NIM: 2201410061


Corpus Linguistics

Simpson, James.2011.The Routledge Handbook of Applied Linguistics. New York: Routledge


Corpus linguistics most commonly refers to the study of machine-readable spoken and written language samples that have been assembled in a principled way for the purpose of linguistics research. Corpus linguistics is concerned with language use in real contexts.


Corpus as data

Corpora are designed to represent a particular language variety. Specialized corpora includes texts that belong to a particular type while general corpora includes many different types of texts, often assembled with the aim to serve as reference resources for linguistic research or to produce reference materials. Historical corpora include texts from different periods of time and allow for the study of language change when compared with corpora from other periods. Monitor corpora can be used for a similar purpose, but tend to focus on current changes in the language. Parallel corpora include texts in at least two languages that have either been directly translated or produced in different languages for the same purpose. Learner corpora contain collections of texts produced by learners of a language.



            Metadata, or ‘data about data’, is the conventional method used to collect and document further information about the collected discourse itself. Thus, metadata are critical to a corpus to help achieve the standards for representativeness, and of balance and homogeneity (see Sinclair 2005).

            Burnard (2005) uses the term metadata as an umbrella term which includes editorial, analytic, descriptive and administrative categories:

a. Editorial metadata: providing information about the relationship between corpus components and their original source.

b. Analytic metadata: providing information about the way in which corpus components have been interpreted and analyzed.

c. Descriptive metadata: providing classificatory information derived from internal or external properties of the corpus components.

d. Administrative metadata: providing documentary information about the corpus itself, such as its title, its availability, its revision status, etc.


Metadata are particularly important when the corpus is shared and reused by others in a research community, Metadata can be kept in a separate database or included as a ‘header’ at the start of each document (usually encoded though mark-up language). A separate database with this information makes it easier to compare different types of documents and has the distinct advantage that it can be further extended by other users of the same data.


Corpus linguistics: tools and methods

A number of user-friendly software packages are available which facilitate the manipulation and analysis of corpus data. Common functionalities include the generation of frequency counts according to specified criteria, comparisons of frequency information in different texts, different formats of concordance outputs, including the Key Word In Context (KWIC) concordance, and the extraction of multiword units or clusters of items in a text.


Word lists

Various word lists that are based to some degree on word frequency in a corpus exist especially in the English language teaching (ELT) context. Word lists are a good starting point for subsequent searches of individual items at concordance level and can be useful in the comparison of different corpora. Lemmatisation can be done manually using an alphabetical frequency list, or in an automated way which is often based to some degree on lists of predefined lemmas. Different forms of the same lemma tend to vary significantly in terms of their overall frequency, with one particular form tending to be more frequent than others in the lemma.

Research in the area of computational linguistics has introduced new techniques for extracting meaningful units from corpora, both on the basis of frequency information (see, for example, Danielsson 2003) and on the basis of part-of-speech tagged corpora which include further annotation of semantic fields (Rayson 2003).


Keywords and key sequences

Keywords are identified on the basis of statistical comparisons of word frequency lists derived from the target corpus and the reference corpus. Each item in the target corpus is compared with its equivalent in the reference corpus, and the statistical significance of difference is calculated using chi-square or log-likelihood statistics (see Dunning 1993). Both of these statistics compare actual observed frequencies between two items with their expected frequencies, assuming random distribution. If the difference between observed and expected frequency is large then it is likely that the relationship between the two items is not random.


The concordance output

A concordance output can be useful in providing a representation of language data which allows the user to notice patterns relating to the way in which a lexical item or a sequence is used in context. In order to describe the nature of individual units of meaning, Sinclair (1996) suggests four parameters: collocation, colligation, semantic preference and semantic prosody. Collocation refers to the habitual co-occurrence of words and will be discussed in more detail below. Colligation is the co-occurrence of grammatical choices. Grammatical patterning around a particular word accounts for the ‘variation’ of a phrase, which ‘gives the phrase its essential flexibility, so that it can fit into the surrounding co-text’. Besides, ‘fixed phrases’ are therefore only fixed if we consider the lexico-grammatical ‘core’. If we extend the units of meaning, however, to patterns in the co-text, the expressions become more variable. The semantic preference of a lexical item or expression is a semantic abstraction of its prominent collocates. In addition, semantic prosodies are associations that arise from the collocates of a lexical item and are not easily detected using introspection. Semantic prosodies have mainly been described in terms of their positive or negative polarity (Sinclair 1991a; Stubbs 1995) but also in terms of their association with ‘tentativeness/indirectness/face saving’ (McCarthy 1998: 22).


Current issues in corpus linguistics


John Sinclair’s theory (1991a) said about everyday language is full of highly recurrent sequences of words challenges the traditional perception of language processing in the brain and the belief that language production (and reception) relies on a completely rule-based system. He (1991a) suggests that highly recurrent chunks are fundamental to the organization and the production of language, and proposes that language production is the result of the alternation between the idiom principle and the open-choice principle.

            The term multiword unit is often used in this context as an umbrella term for sequences of interrelated words which are retrieved from memory as single lexical units. They occur with varying degrees of fixedness, including formulae (e.g. have a nice day), metaphors (e.g. kick the bucket) and collocations (e.g. rancid butter) (Moon 1998; Wray 2002). The description and conceptualization of multiword units are a key concern in many different areas of language study ranging from psycholinguistics to Natural Language Processing (NLP). There are many different ways of identifying multiword units. These include intuitive identification, the use of discourse analytical techniques, and automatic extraction from electronic texts.


Corpora and English language teaching


While corpus linguistics has enabled better descriptions of language in use, its real impact lies in the enhancement of applications based on those descriptions. A key area to highlight in this context is that of English language teaching, where the latest findings from corpus research have led to real innovations in material design and classroom practice. There are two main areas in which corpora can benefit language teaching and learning: first, by incorporating the latest corpus-based findings into language syllabuses, teaching materials and dictionaries; second, by encouraging teachers and learners to examine language patterns in corpus as part of their (independent) learning activities in and outside classrooms (see Gavioli and Aston 2001).

Corpus linguists and language teaching researchers are often found collaborating in these two areas and there are now publications on the subject. Some of these provide further corpus-based descriptions of aspects of language which target the needs of specific groups of language learners. Others aim to equip teachers and learners with the skills of concordancing and extracting useful information from concordance lines or include practical suggestions on the various ways in which corpus research can be introduced into the language classroom to enrich the experience of language learners.

Corpus data are increasingly becoming an accepted and desirable basis for the development of English language teaching materials, and most major dictionaries and grammars now advertise the fact that they are based on ‘real’ language from a corpus.


The Web as corpus

Web provides more than free, instant suggestions on spellings, corpus linguists have developed Web-based interfaces that allow researchers to use the Web as a compatible resource for linguistic research.

While the World Wide Web is a very large repository of naturally occurring language, further research is needed as to the type of language that is being used on the Web, what it represents, and how balanced it is in the context of a particular research question.


The impact of new technologies on corpus linguistics: an example

One of the main impacts of new technology on the area of corpus linguistics is no doubt the use of the Web as a corpus.

Gesture, prosody and kinesics all add meaning to utterances and discourse as a whole, and recent research in the area of spoken corpus analysis has started to explore the potential impact of drawing on multimodal corpus resources for the descriptions of spoken language. In addition to offering a more comprehensive resource for describing discourse, multimodal corpora also allow us to reflect on and evaluate some of the methods for analyzing textual renderings of spoken discourse established so far. The representation and analysis of ‘textual’ concordance data thus becomes limited and limiting in a way that can now be avoided by using one of the tools and interfaces developed for aligning and searching text, audio and video data, such as ELAN or Transana.




  1. Q: Explain the four terms of metadata from Burnered (2005)!

A: Burnard (2005) uses the four term of metadata, they are:

a. Editorial metadata: providing information about the relationship between corpus components and their original source.

b. Analytic metadata: providing information about the way in which corpus components have been interpreted and analyzed.

c. Descriptive metadata: providing classificatory information derived from internal or external properties of the corpus components.

d. Administrative metadata: providing documentary information about the corpus itself, such as its title, its availability, its revision status, etc.


  1. Q: What is the relation between Corpora and English language teaching? What is the benefit?

A: English language teaching, where the latest findings from corpus research, have led to real innovations in material design and classroom practice. There are two main areas in which corpora can benefit language teaching and learning: first, by incorporating the latest corpus-based findings into language syllabuses, teaching materials and dictionaries; second, by encouraging teachers and learners to examine language patterns in corpus as part of their (independent) learning activities in and outside classrooms.


World Englishes

Name: Fatimah
NIM: 2201410061
World Englishes
Simpson, James.2011.The Routledge Handbook of Applied Linguistics. New York: Routledge
This chapter shows, first, that there are many Englishes, not just one. Next, debates concerning the motivations for language change in New Englishes and examples of a few innovative linguistic features in those varieties are provided. Then, the developmental stages in the emergence of New Englishes are discussed. Finally, recent developments, including the role of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and the influence of new technology are investigated.

Models of World Englishes
There have been many models that represent the nature of Englishes around the world; the most influential model is Kachru’s Three Circles of English. Here is his theory and its country example:

The current sociolinguistic profile of English may be viewed in terms of three concentric circles … The Inner Circle refers to the traditional cultural and linguistic bases of English [e.g. Britain, USA, Australia]. The Outer Circle represents the institutionalized non-native varieties (ESL) in the regions that have passed through extended periods of colonization [e.g. Singapore, India, Nigeria] … The Expanding Circle includes the regions where the performance varieties of the language are used essentially in EFL contexts [e.g. China, Japan, Egypt].(Kachru 1992c: 356–7)

The terms ESL (English as a Second Language) and EFL (English as a Foreign Language) in this extract refer to the traditional classification which Kachru challenged. His great contribution to the field lay in recognizing the development of many different varieties of English, so the language should not be seen in terms of a single monolithic standard. Instead, as there is a multitude of different Englishes, variation is the norm.

Linguistic motivations
A fundamental principle in the study of World Englishes is that variation and change are natural and inevitable (Kirkpatrick 2007a). As a consequence, linguistic features which differ from Standard English are not necessarily errors but may instead represent components of a New English.
Linguistic variation, Inner-Circle Englishes, and New Englishes are characterized by variation, not just in pronunciation and vocabulary, but grammar as well.
Mesthrie and Bhatt (2008) propose that New Englishes can be classified as either ‘deleters’ or ‘preservers’ (2008: 90–2). Deleters are varieties whose speakers commonly leave out grammatical elements, while preservers are those in which deletion is less common.
Kortmann (2010) said that whether it is a high or low-contact Inner-Circle variety, an indigenized Outer-Circle variety, a pidgin or a creole is a better predictor of its morphosyntactic features than the part of the world where it is spoken.

Linguistic features: some examples

a. Dental fricatives

One of the most common features of New Englishes is the tendency to avoid using /θ/ and /ð/. However, although it is true that avoidance of dental fricatives is found in Inner-Circle varieties, this phenomenon is almost certainly currently more widespread in New Englishes.

b. Final consonant clusters

Word-final consonant clusters are commonly simplified in New Englishes, often involving the omission of the final consonant, especially if it is a plosive.
This process is reinforced by the phonological shape of words that are borrowed from English into the local language. For instance, Standard Malay has borrowed many words from English in which a final plosive is dropped if the word ends with a consonant cluster. Examples include lif (‘lift’), pos (‘post’), hos (‘host’), kos (‘cost’), arkitek (‘architect’), saintis (‘scientist’), setem (‘stamp’) and kem (‘camp’) (Collins 2002), and it is not surprising that this final consonant is also often omitted when the same words are pronounced in English.

c. Rhythm

While stress-based rhythm is often claimed to be the basis of English speech timing in most Inner-Circle varieties, use of syllable-based rhythm is widely reported for New Englishes. It is often still asserted that languages may be placed along a continuum of stress-/syllabletiming (Dauer 1983).

d. Absence of tense marking

The absence of the present tense -s inflection is reported in many Englishes. In addition, many speakers of New Englishes see no need to mark the past tense of verbs once the time frame of an event has been established. Another factor that may influence the use of tenses in Singapore English is the nature of the verb.

e. Count/non-count nouns

Some distinctions between count and non-count nouns in Inner-Circle Englishes are rather idiosyncratic. For example, furniture and luggage are treated as mass nouns, but there really does not seem to be any logical reason why we should not count items of furniture or pieces of luggage. The widespread occurrence of furnitures and similar words therefore seems a classic case where New Englishes may be hastening the process of regularizing the language.

f. Invariant tags
The use of invariant tags is a common simplification strategy that is being adopted in a wide range of different places.

g. Topic prominence
– In many New Englishes, the topic tends to be placed clearly out at the front of the sentence.
– Sometimes, topic fronting is followed by a resumptive pronoun.
While topic fronting is not an example of simplification, it seems to be a natural process in human language, and perhaps its widespread occurrence in New Englishes may have a substantial influence on the discourse structures that become increasingly favored and accepted as mainstream in World Englishes.

h. General trends in linguistic features
One characteristic of many shared features is that they tend to simplify and/ or regularize English. Simplifying and regularizing innovations are ones that have a good chance of becoming adopted as standard when a language evolves, and we suggest that New Englishes may be leading the way in this respect.
We can regard this use of close rather than closed as illustrating both simplification (it is easier to say, as the word-final consonant cluster is avoided) and also regularization (it is consistent with the use of open). And this is just the kind of change that we might expect to find adopted in Standard English one day.

Stages in the development of New Englishes

Kachru (1992b: 56) suggested that New Englishes pass through three stages. The first is marked by non-acceptance of the emerging variety, with locals preferring the colonial or relevant Inner-Circle variety. The second stage sees local and imported varieties existing side-by-side. Finally, the local variety becomes accepted as the standard.
Schneider (2007: 56) identifies five stages in the developmental cycle:
• Foundation: English first arrives in the area.
• Exonormative Stabilization: standards are provided by the colonial variety.
• Nativization: bilingual and multilingual speakers create a new local variety of English which is influenced by the linguistic systems and cultural norms of the speakers’ first languages.
• Endonormative Stabilization: the new variety becomes socially accepted and provides the classroom model.
• Differentiation: the new variety itself develops sub-varieties.
It can be seen that the varieties of English can reach Schneider’s final stage of differentiation linguistically, but sociolinguistically they remain at an earlier stage when language planners are not prepared to accept local varieties as classroom models.

Recent developments

A lingua franca can be defined as ‘a language that is used for communication between different groups of people, each speaking a different language’ (Richards et al. 1985: 214).
ELF is now the most common use of English in the world (Jenkins 2007), so a study of its linguistic features and the ways it allows people to achieve successful intercultural communication offers insights about international communication and also guidelines for English language teaching.
Although ELF shares some grammatical and phonological features with New Englishes (Deterding and Kirkpatrick 2006), ELF speakers generally avoid the use of local lexis and idioms (Kirkpatrick 2007b). This is a key distinction between World Englishes and ELF, as one fundamental role of World Englishes lies in their ability to reflect local phenomena and cultural values, often through the use of borrowings from local languages. In contrast, this is avoided in ELF communication, where the fundamental role is to facilitate cross-cultural communication.
ELF clearly has a major role to play in the modern world, and the choice of English is often seen as natural.
While the choice of English may seem natural and the demand for it ever increasing, one key question is the extent to which the need for English will lead to equality or perpetuate further inequality (Pennycook 2010). Graddol (2006), however, envisages that it is those who only have English who may be disadvantaged in future.

The influence of new technology
New technology has had a big influence on the development of worldwide varieties of English.
In the modern world, we similarly find that facilities for communicating over a long distance, for recording data, and for sharing information via the Internet are having a profound impact on the evolution of World Englishes, as new words and ways of expressing oneself that arise in one society can easily spread elsewhere. However, at the same time, each variety of
English can develop its own idiosyncratic forms of expression, and new media that can facilitate the establishment of these local features within a society. New technology therefore helps maintain a balance between global and local features in the development of World Englishes (Pennycook 2007).
One other aspect of new technology relevant for research into World Englishes is electronic corpora. It referred to earlier offer researchers the opportunity to investigate English usage in Continental Europe.


1. Q: In which countries do place the use of initial /θ/ into /t/? For example the word three that should be read / θ ri:/ change to be /tri:/
A: the countries that place the use of initial /θ/ into /t/ are as Singapore the Philippines Brunei, Ghana, The Bahamas, and India.
2. Q: Give examples of Standard Malay that has borrowed many words from English in which a final plosive is dropped if the word ends with a consonant cluster?
A: the examples are lif (‘lift’), pos (‘post’), hos (‘host’), kos (‘cost’), arkitek (‘architect’), saintis (‘scientist’), setem (‘stamp’) and kem (‘camp’), etc.

Language maintenance

Name: Fatimah
NIM: 2201410061
Language Maintenance
(Davis, Alan and Catherine Elder. 2004. The handbook of applied linguistics. Cornwall: Blackwell Publishing Ltd)
29.1 Defining Language Maintenance
In fact investigating language maintenance is often done through the identification of domains and situations in which the language is no longer used or is gradually making way for the use of another language. The term language maintenance is used to describe a situation in which a speaker, a group of speakers, or a speech community continue to use their language in some or all spheres of life despite competition with the dominant or majority language to become the main/sole language in these spheres.

29.2 LM and LS in the Context of Language Contact

Although language contact does not always involve linguistic competition in which only one language survives, there are many situations of language contact in which one language (gradually) loses ground in the face of another language. The most drastic effect is undoubtedly language death. The language dies because it no longer has a community of users (including speakers) and all its functions or uses have been usurped by another language. Language death is usually irreversible, especially for those languages of which no written and/or oral records exist. In some cases language revival or language revitalization are possible either because of existing records of the language or through reconstruction based on similarities with neighboring languages or dialects.
A less drastic effect is often known as language shift. The language itself, however, survives because it continues to be used in other contexts or communities. Linguistic groups and communities threatened by LS can or may undertake efforts of various kinds to reverse LS or to maintain their language in all or some spheres of usage.
29.3 LM and LS as Cross- and Interdisciplinary Fields of Research

The study of LM and LS is a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary enterprise involving and/or bringing together (sub)disciplines such as sociology, sociology of language, anthropology (in particular anthropological linguistics), social psychology, sociolinguistics, contact linguistics, and applied linguistics as well as others such as (linguistic) demography and political science
The focus is on some aspects of the study of LM (and LS) which are of particular relevance to the field of applied linguistics and which highlight contributions applied linguists have made to the study of LM and LS.

29.4 Researching LM and LS: Methods, Tools, and Data

29.4.1 The use of census and other large-scale surveys
Census surveys which include questions about language use, language proficiency, or language choice can provide useful data on LM and LS. Their main shortcomings include that they are almost always based on self-reports and self-assessments with people often over-estimating or under-estimating their usage patterns or practices.
Census and other large-scale data are apt at identifying if LS is taking place in one or several speech communities and the extent of LS by comparing intra- and intergenerational language use as well as comparing data from several censuses. Increasingly the results of census surveys are used as the starting point for in-depth studies of specific factors (e.g., gender, marital patterns, generation) affecting LM or LS across or in particular speech communities.

29.4.2 Questionnaires
Questionnaires have been used to document various features crucial to LM and LS. These include investigating the language use patterns of bi- or multilingual persons in specific context (domain analysis), their language proficiency, and their attitudes toward the languages and LM/LS. Domain is a crucial concept in the study of LM as it allows for the identification of contexts in which the minority language or language under threat is best maintained and in which situations it is least maintained.
A domain analysis is of particular use to the study of LM and LS, not only because it identifies which language(s) is/are used in a particular situation or domain, but also because it identifies domains (and their constellations of interlocutors, locales, topics) which are central to LM and domains which are prone to intrusion from another language and thus act as an agent of shift.
Questionnaires have also been used to obtain self-assessments of proficiency in the languages involved. Language proficiency assessments assist in identifying the degree of LS or language attrition an individual or a group is experiencing. They also contribute to informing what actions and efforts are needed to ensure or foster LM.
The open-ended and closed-ended questions allow the researcher to probe individual or group attitudes to the role, functions, and relevance of the ethnic/minority language in the marking of that group’s identity. The findings of such studies are then used to make prognoses about LM or LS in that community.

29.4.3 Participant observation
Such studies focus on documenting the linguistic choices that individuals make in their community and on exploring the reasons why they make these choices or which factors/ forces shape their choice or usage patterns. Researchers frequently become “part” of the community by living and working there for a considerable period of time or by regular engagement with the group/community over an extended period of time.

29.4.4 Integrative and multi-method approaches to LM and LS research
Scholars in the field of LM and LS also often prefer to combine methods or to adopt an integrative approach to research methods because of the perceived advantages of such a combination in examining and understanding the phenomena of LM and LS.

29.5 Factors and Forces Promoting LM or LS
A key objective of studying LM and LS is to be able to address the questions: how can LS be halted or reversed and/or how can LM be effected? Making their expertise and knowledge available to inform and assist individuals, groups, communities, and indeed governments in relation to linguistic matters, including LM, is seen as pertinent to being an applied linguist.
29.5.1 Clear-cut and ambivalent factors promoting LM

Kloss (1966) identified a range of factors which he categorized as either clear-cut (clearly promoting LM) or ambivalent because they could promote either LM or LS. Kloss’ clear-cut factors include:

1. early point of immigration,
2. the existence of linguistic enclaves
3. membership of a denomination with parochial schools
4. pre-emigration experience with LM.

The ambivalent factors identified by Kloss (1966) include both individual and group factors:
1. Educational level of the immigrant
2. Numerical strength of the group
3. Linguistic and cultural similarity with the dominant group
4. Attitude of the dominant or majority group toward the language and/or group
5. Sociocultural characteristics of the group

29.5.2 Language as a core value

Smolicz’ theory is built around the notion that each group subscribes to a particular set of cultural values which are vital to its continued existence as a separate entity. LM is assumed to be more important to those groups for which language is a core value.

29.5.3 Ethnolinguistic vitality
The core value theory, the theory of ethnolinguistic vitality is concerned with identifying factors (i.e., vitality factors) which a group needs or relies on to operate as a separate and distinctive entity. A group with high ethnolinguistic vitality will continue to operate as a distinctive entity whereas a group with low ethnolinguistic vitality is less likely to maintain itself as a distinctive entity or group. Giles, Bourhis, & Taylor (1977) list a range of variables/components which comprise objective ethnolinguistic vitality, they are: status, demographic, and Institutional support.

29.5.4 The market value of language
In a contact setting it is the language or languages which are perceived as useful in a socioeconomic sense that will persist. This theory explains why there are class differences in LM patterns within the same ethnolinguistic groups.

29.6 LM Efforts: Community and Individual Strategies and Initiatives

LM efforts can cover a very wide range of strategies and initiatives and can have variable goals and outcomes. Comprehensive and useful model within which to describe LM efforts is Fishman’s (1991) work on Reversing Language Shift. He proposes an eight-stage model to provide insights into the necessary steps which need to be taken by a community in order to reverse LS.
Stages of Reversing Language Shift: Severity of Intergenerational Dislocation
1. Education, work sphere, mass media and governmental operations at higher and nationwide levels.
2. Local/regional mass media and governmental services.
3. The local/regional (i.e., non-neighborhood) work sphere, both among Xmen and among Ymen.
4. a. Public schools for Xish children, offering some instruction via Xish, but substantially under Yish curricular and staffing control.
b. Schools in lieu of compulsory education and substantially under Xish curricular and staffing control.

II RLS to transcend diglossia, subsequent to its attainment
5. Schools for literacy acquisition, for the old and for the young, and not in lieu of compulsory education.
6. The intergenerational and demographically concentrated home-family-neighborhood: the basis of mother tongue transmission.
7. Cultural interaction in Xish primarily involving the community-based older generation.
8. Reconstructing Xish and adult acquisition of XSL.
Note: Xish refers to minority language, Yish refers to the majority language.

29.6.1 Language maintenance efforts in the family, home, and neighborhood domains

The language practices of parents, grandparents, and other relatives or kin considered important in child rearing are crucial in laying the foundations for the maintenance of a minority language among future generations.
The LM efforts of the home and family can be strengthened through language practices and efforts in the neighborhood. Other community-based efforts which transcend the neighborhood include the establishment of cultural and social organizations (clubs/societies), the development of media services (printed and electronic media) in the minority language as well as the continuation of ethno-religious practices which further LM.

29.6.2 LM in the educational domain
Communities and scholars agree that minority language teaching is an important tool for language maintenance. The quality of the tuition also varies greatly depending on the linguistic and financial resources of the community.

29.7 Concluding Remarks

In a globalizing world characterized by multinational expansions, increasing voluntary and involuntary transnational movements, and accompanied by the need or desire for a global communication code, there will be even greater pressures on and challenges for ethnolinguistic minorities if they wish to maintain their cultural, ethnic, or linguistic distinctiveness.

1. Q: What is the definition of Language maintenance?
A: it is a situation in which a speaker, a group of speakers, or a speech community continue to use their language in some or all spheres of life despite competition with the dominant or majority language to become the main/sole language in these spheres.
2. Q: From Fishman stage in the LM process, which stage is most crucial? why?

A: Stage 6 is the most crucial stage in the LM process (or the process of reversing LS) – the reinforcement of the language in the home, the family, the neighborhood, and the community. It is because without continued language use in these domains further stages (5 to 1) will not enhance the intergenerational linguistic transmission process.


Name: Fatimah
NIM: 2201410061
Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL)
(Davis, Alan and Catherine Elder. 2004. The handbook of applied linguistics. Cornwall: Blackwell Publishing Ltd)
25.1 Introduction
Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) can be defined as “the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning” (Levy, 1997, p. 1). Although earlier practitioners relied on acronyms such as CAI (computer-aided instruction), CAL (computer-assisted learning), CELL (computer-enhanced language learning) and TELL (technology enhanced language learning), CALL is now widely regarded as the central acronym to refer to studies concerned with second language and computer technology.
The main objective of CALL is to “improve the learning capacity of those who are being taught a language through computerized means” (Cameron, 1999a, p. 2). This definition focuses particularly on language learning.

25.2 Overview of CALL
As with the broader field of applied linguistics, CALL can be located at the crossroads of a number of disciplines, like Levy (1997) stated, they are psychology, artificial intelligence, computational linguistics, instructional technology, and human–computer interaction. In other hand, Chapelle (2001, pp. 27–43) places CALL within six computer-related sub-disciplines: educational technology, computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), artificial intelligence, computational linguistics, corpus linguistics, and computer-assisted assessment.

25.2.1 A brief history
From the early 1980s, increased computer availability fuelled a growing interest in CALL. Teachers were able to write or modify computer applications to suit specific language learning situations; as a result, more and more students were exposed to them both at home and on campus. Computers had the capacity to integrate text, audio, and video that could be controlled by the learner.
One significant part of the communicative approach project was the full integration of language teachers in the development process; that is, project managers promoted teaching and learning with computers above software design and instructional theory.
CALL practitioners had produced a substantial body of work that focused mainly on pedagogical computer use. Critics at the time, however, began to question the effectiveness of such practices and suggested a much deeper examination of CALL activities and materials (Dunkel, 1991, pp. 24–5).
From the start of the 1990s, teachers began to make greater use of networked computers, and by mid-decade the explosive growth of the Internet prompted CALL educators to increasingly adopt socio-collaborative modes of learning. Classroom-based CALL activities could include learner communities throughout the world through email, virtual environments, and shared domains. Pedagogical discussions of CALL have thus shifted to exploration of such communities and their use of collaborative activities.

25.2.2 Major theoretical perspectives
In communicative CALL sought to help students develop their own mental models through use of the target language. Exercises were designed to guide meaningful peer interactions and promote fluency.
Integrative CALL seeks to make full use of networked computers as a means to engage learners in meaningful, large-scale collaborative activities (Debski, 2000; Warschauer & Kern, 2000). Instructors promote close ties between learning processes, objectives, and a student ownership of the outcomes. Authentic discourse provides the basis for learning material. Students are taught techniques in online publishing, and are urged to produce their own texts. The key distinction between communicative CALL and integrative CALL is that, in the former, learner choice and self-management of activity are driven by task-based approaches to syllabus design. At its most liberal interpretation, a syllabus in integrative CALL simply represents a “dynamic blueprint” where learning occurs through “accidents” generated by projects (Barson, 1999). In contrast, a syllabus in communicative CALL is likely to be discrete and related to a set of curricular guidelines that have been defined in advance of learner needs (Corbel, 1999).

25.3 Key Areas: The Roles of Computers, Students, Teachers, and Researchers
Broadly speaking, CALL is made possible through an interdependent relationship among computers, students, and instructors. The use of computers, for example, influences the nature of student activities which in turn affects how teacher may set goals and constructs the learning environment.

25.3.1 Roles of the computers

These days, the computer is likely to be seen in the “subservient role of tool in the service of the larger goals and contexts of instructional communities” (Meskill, 1999, p. 141).
One key role of computers is to deliver materials. In CALL, efficient materials delivery was a prime focus of the technology. Sophisticated applications have been designed to adapt and fit individual learner needs. Materials in communicative CALL served as prompts for both discussion and practice.
Computers also permit the creation of electronic materials. Davies (1998) provides a succinct four-part overview of multimedia authoring packages for language teachers. In the first of his categories, he cites products which align with the “Keep it Simple and Stupid” school of design. The popularity of this approach rests with its relative ease of use. Secondly, an integrated approach using a full authoring suite can be utilized for materials production. A third approach is to use a multipurpose application and then later move and adapt materials into related computer environments. In his fourth “Generic CALL” category, Davies writes about the formation of a European Community project, known as MALTED (Multimedia Authoring for Language Tutors and Educational
Development), that aims to create an authoring environment which specifically meets the requirements of language teachers. Participating project members are set to develop the means of authoring multimedia courseware that can be shared and revised according to the requirements of local contexts.
The basic definition of pedagogical tasks is “a focused, well-defined activity, relatable to pedagogic decision making, which requires learners to use language, with an emphasis on meaning, to attain an objective, and which elicits data which may be the basis for research” (Bygate, Skehan, & Swain, 2001, p. 12).
Debski (2000) said that collaborative learners themselves need to negotiate what to do and how to complete activities. That is, task definition in and of itself is an opportunity for learning in an ill-defined domain. The optimal role of “objectives,” too, may require consideration because they may change within the context of a group project.
Significantly for CALL educators, computers have the potential to help students with special needs, for example, in their use of screen readers, Braille devices, or other assistive technologies.

25.3.2 Roles of the learner
In each of the three stages of CALL, the role of students changes in tandem with shifts in learning theory, the capabilities of computers, and instructional processes. In CALL, this interest has been directed to looking at student behaviors regarding online reading, listening, speaking, and writing (Hegelheimer & Chapelle, 2000; Liou, 2000), particularly in regard to the comprehension of second language multimedia.
CALL studies have researched autonomous learner processes, one direction in the move toward integrative CALL is to allow for, and promote, learner autonomy throughout a course of instruction. Within the context of CALL, learner autonomy can be defined as “the development of a capacity for engagement with and critical reflection on the learning process” (Shield & Weininger, 1999, p. 100). Aligned more with socio-collaboration, autonomy “involves the development of interdependence through which a group of learners and teacher will collaboratively take responsibility for and control of their learning/teaching environment” (Blin, 1999, p. 134). In the context of CALL the term seeks to describe the range of technical skills and embedded social practices students need before they can productively engage in computer-based activities.
Accordingly, Shetzer and Warschauer (2000) divide the electronic literacy framework into three overlapping areas: communication, construction, and research. Thus, to become adept at communication via computer, the learner must be able to interact and collaborate in decentered, asynchronous ways. They argue that learners engaged in electronic literacy practices must ultimately become autonomous and take charge of their own learning. One role for instructors, then, is to promote independent lifelong learning strategies.

25.3.3 Roles of the instructor
The integration of CALL into the classroom has challenged instructors to become familiar with new technologies and redefine their views of teaching. Not only have computers shifted instructional practices, they have changed the way materials are designed, assessment is conducted, and how programs are evaluated.
In both structural and communicative CALL, the teacher often served as a mediator between the computer and students throughout the learning process. Although computer usage generally fostered a “programmed” approach to instruction, instructors were nonetheless reminded to stay on hand to keep things running smoothly.
Within integrative CALL, teachers are encouraged to take on a less intrusive role. Debski and Gruba (1999) undertook a qualitative survey into foreign language instructors’ attitudes toward integrative CALL. Key perceptions included a primary teacher concern for authenticity and recreating real-life situations. The instructors saw computers as a way to encourage social interaction so that the computers acted as “active partners” rather than “passive assistants” to the instructional process (p. 232).

25.3.4 Establishing CALL research priorities
Primary research concerns in CALL shift with each stage. In Chapelle’s view, cross-disciplinary contributions to empirical CALL research were found wanting and published studies had often vaguely described key definitions. She identified two key research questions: (1) “What kind of language does a learner engage in during a CALL activity?” and (2) “How good is the language experience in CALL for L2 learning?” (Chapelle, 1997, p. 22). Essentially, Chapelle sees attempts to answer the first question as descriptive. That is, they provide a basis for decisions creating a syllabus. The second question is evaluative in that it aims to examine the quality of learner language.
In the area of educational media research, the dismissal of media comparison approaches led to a rise of investigations concerned with “media attributes” (Wetzel, Radtke, & Stern, 1994). Educational media researchers (e.g., Clark, 1994; Kozma, 1994) now urge investigators to consider those variables that cluster around “media” (e.g., speed of presentation, familiarity, editing style, clarity of images, topic).
In regard to the examination of learner behaviors, or strategies, CALL researchers need to explore the framework of “constructively responsive” readers. This perspective, based on the underpinnings of cognitive constructivism (for an overview, see Driscoll, 2000), regards comprehenders as flexible, concerned with main ideas, and, most importantly, responsive to the presentation of textual resources as they attempt to build a coherent macro-structure.
The need for evaluation of CALL projects and activities is a recurrent theme in the literature and has become more urgent as the field expands (Chapelle, 2001, p. 26). Broadly speaking, the increased emphasis on computer-based learning throughout education has produced new tools for analysis, increased funding, and widened interest.
Lynch notes that proponents of integrative CALL must be careful to strike appropriate balances between those activities which focus on electronic literacy skills and those which provide opportunities for language learning.

25.4 Discussion
Because of large-scale computer-based tests, student work styles and the increasingly commonplace use of information technologies the context of computer-supported collaborative learning.
Given the increasing centrality of technologies to applied linguistics, it is disappointing to see recent attempts to define pedagogic tasks (Bygate, Skehan, & Swain, 2001) ignore the role of computers.
CALL research both needs to be conducted in a wider variety of organizations and over longer periods of time.
Warschauer (1999; 2000b; 2002) examines the impact of computers beyond the classroom and begins to unpack the “digital divide,” other CALL researchers need to be urged to read more widely in areas of social informatics, cyber-cultures, and cultural studies.

1. Q: What are some advantages of using computer in learning language?
– It is more interactive aid
– It could interact with the students
– It may act as a teacher or tutor
– It can become a very effective reference book
– It can be utilized to communicate visually
2. Q: What are some disadvantages of CALL?
A: – CAL program is considered to be much less handy
– If we reading on the screen, we will more difficult and tiring
– CAL program is costly enough for the teacher or programmer

discourse analysis

Name: Fatimah

NIM: 2201410061

Summary Discourse Analysis

Simpson, James.2011.The Routledge Handbook of Applied Linguistics. New York: Routledge



Applied linguistics (AL) interest in discourse analysis (DA) originated in an awareness of the inability of formal linguistics to account for how participants in communication achieve meaning. Discourse can be defined as a stretch of language in use, of any length and in any mode, which achieves meaning and coherence for those involved. Discourse analysis can be defined as the use and development of theories and methods which elucidate how this meaning and coherence is achieved. This quest makes DA inevitably concerned not only with language, but with all element and processes which contribute to communication. The AL DA tradition thus currently combines the strengths of linguistics and non-linguistic perspectives, making it the most powerful and rigorous tool for the analysis of language in use. Consequently, it has a great deal to offer to social theory and sociology on the one hand, and to linguistics on the other.

An issue is how to distinguish DA from the other approaches to language use included elsewhere in this volume. The study of ESP, EAP, institutions, medical communication, the media, and classrooms all involve the practice of DA, while conversation analysis, corpus linguistics, critical discourse analysis, linguistic ethnography, multimodal analysis, and stylistics are all among its tools.


Early AL DA

In the 1950s DA was understood in theoretical structural linguistics as the potential extension of language analysis beyond the level of single sentences to discover distributional principles between sentences as well as within them (Harris 1952). Halliday’s concerns with language function (e.g. 1973) and the use of language as a social semiotic (e.g. 1978), were key influences from linguistics which helped move DA in AL beyond an interest in merely extending linguistic analysis.

In 1970s and 1980s, DA was and remains fundamental to the guiding principle of communicative language teaching and its later developments. At this point in its history, DA was fairly readily defined as an extension of formal linguistics, or a refutation of it, depending on one’s point of view.


Text, context, and discourse

Much early DA work in AL saw text (the linguistic element in communication) as essentially distinct from context (the non-linguistic elements) and discourse as the two in interaction to create meaning. If context and text are separate, then the status of text itself becomes precarious.

If considered as linguistic forms, temporarily and artificially separated from context for the purposes of analysis, text ceases to have any actual existence, and seems at odds with the aim of DA to deal with the realities of language in use rather than linguistic abstractions. There is no use of language which does not also have a situation, participants, co-text, paralanguage, etc.



Interest in the role of context led initially to the classic texts of pragmatics (Austin 1962; Searle 1969, 1975; Grice 1975) and attention to how discourse is structured by what speakers are trying to do with their words, and how their intentions are recognized by their interlocutors.


Schema theory

Schema theory is a powerful tool in DA as it can help to explain both high level aspects of understanding such as coherence, and low level linguistic phenomena such as article choice. In the binary conception of discourse as text + context a schema can be classed as context, as it is a kind of knowledge, derived from experience of the world, in whose light each new text is interpreted.


Conversation analysis

CA’s primary interest is in the social act (Seedhouse 2004: 3) and it ‘is only marginally interested in language as such’ (Hutchby and Wooffift 1998: 14). CA made use of newly available recording technology to transcribe and closely analyze actually occurring conversation, seeking to understand how participants ‘make sense of, find their way about in, and act on the circumstances in which they find themselves’ (Heritage 1984: 4) and through this close analysis to understand the patterns of social life (Bhatia et al. 2008: 4) as realized in talk.

Although initially concerned with conversation, later CA work has moved on to study talk in a variety of contexts. CA it confines itself, in the interests of methodological rigor, to the analysis of the immediate mechanisms of talk, avoiding speculation about the mental states these mechanisms reflect and create, or the larger social realities and histories which they both constitute and reflect.


Ethnography, language ecology, linguistic ethnography


Ethnography seeks an understanding of culture through an analysis of all details of everyday life in a given context. One particular ethnographic notion from which DA can benefit is that of the irreducibility of experience. The ethnographer’s preoccupation with the relationship between researcher and participants, and how findings, may be skewed by the former’s identity and preconceptions.

Arguing that close linguistic analysis is always a sound entry point into cultural understanding, linguistic ethnographers draw upon a number of precedent influences. LE seeks simultaneously to ‘tie ethnography down’ and ‘to open linguistics up’ making it highly relevant resource for DA.

Besides, ecology seeks to relate language use to its physical and social environment, and the affordances this environment provides. It sees language as a historically contingent phenomenon negotiated in daily interactions, and pays particular attention to the dynamic relation of language and cultural change, historical expansion, displacement (e.g. by migration), continuity, and transformation.


Semiotics, paralanguage and multimodality

The notion of language without paralanguage is indeed one of the idealizations of linguistics against which DA defines itself. Every spoken utterance has a volume, speed, pitch and intonation in addition to its linguistic form, propositional content and pragmatic force, and these paralinguistic elements convey key information about the speaker’s identity, attitude, and commitment. The issues of how paralanguage can be transcribed and analyzed raises considerable problems as paralinguistic phenomena are of their nature graded, irreducible and often ambiguous, and transcriptions of them necessarily a selection and an interpretation.

            Multimodal analysis concerns itself largely with the multiple dimensions of meaning made possible by modern printing, computer and mobile technologies, paying attention to the significance of the presentation of the written words themselves (Walker 2001), in different fonts, colors, sizes, arrangements, animations, etc., and to the many communicative modes with which they co-occur, such as still and moving pictures, music, diagrams, tables, etc.


Larger structures

Despite their differences, all of the approaches discussed so far have an important element in common. Though they may aim for, and obtain, far reaching conclusions about communication, culture and society, they take as a starting point a fine-grained analysis of language in use, assembling evidence of what happens in instances of communication, before making generalizations. Other approaches, however, take the opposite approach, they are:


–        Genre analysis


Genre analysis seeks to understand any communicative event as an instance of a genre, defined as ‘a class of communicative events which share some set of communicative purposes’ (Swales 1990: 58). The examples are academic articles, news bulletins, advertisements, prayers, operas, menus. Genre analysis then seeks, through fine-grained analysis, to identify the conventions which characterize these different genres.


–        Critical discourse analysis (CDA)


CDA is concerned with ideology, power relations and social injustices, and how these are represented and reproduced through language. While CDA has attracted widespread support it has also been subjected to criticism for bias and partiality (Widdowson 1995, 1998), lack of rigor and circularity (Stubbs 1998), and confusion and inconsistency in its cognitive and linguistic theoretical bases (Stubbs 1998; O’Halloran 2003) or methodology (Hammersley 1997).


Back to detail and forward to generalization: corpus linguistics

The advent of corpus analysis, however (see Adolphs and Lin, this volume) has enabled DA partially to redress these shortcomings, and to add a quantitative dimension to research. With its power to place any particular instance of language in the context of its use across a wide range of comparable texts or the language as a whole, corpus comparisons have enabled discourse analysts to talk with confidence about the typicality of any text under consideration.

Yet in its quest for understanding of how participants in communication achieve meaning, DA cannot limit itself to textual analysis alone, any more than it can limit itself to the cultural and psychological context of language use without attention to actual text.



Final words

Whether discourse analysis still has any identity separate from the many traditions on which it has drawn. While it may be commendable to draw eclectically upon the strengths of many research traditions to gain a rich insight into communication, there is a valid case for saying that there is no longer a single theory or method of analysis which can be clearly labeled as discourse analysis.






  1. Q: What will happen if the text and context are separate?

A: If context and text are separate, then the status of text itself becomes precarious.

 And the reader will find it difficult to understand the text, s/he cannot convey the meaning of what the writer intended.

  1. Q: What does co-text in pragmatics mean?

A:  the notion of context that depends on the text surrounding an utterance.